Manifestation

Manifestation d’Indiens et de militants contre un méga-barrage en Amazonie

Environ 850 personnes ont manifesté lundi dans la capitale brésilienne contre le projet de construction du méga-barrage de Belo Monte en Amazonie.

Si ce projet aboutit, ce barrage sera l’un des plus grands du monde. Il inondera un immense territoire, asséchera certaines parties de la rivière Xingu, réduisant le stock de poissons dont les Indiens de la région, y compris les Kayapó, les Arara, les Juruna, les Araweté, les Xikrin, les Asurini et les Parakanã, dépendent étroitement pour leur survie.

Le barrage attirera également dans la région de nombreux migrants qui exerceront une pression sur les territoires indigènes et menaceront la vie des Indiens en leur transmettant des maladies. Les Indiens isolés qui vivent dans la région ont peu de résistance aux maladies importées de l’extérieur, ce qui pourrait leur être fatal.

Certains observateurs estiment que l’énergie générée par le barrage servira l’industrie minière.

Le gouvernement brésilien est actuellement en train de discuter un projet de loi qui permettrait l’exploitation minière sur les terres indiennes. Si cette loi est adoptée, les communautés indigènes subiront les effets de la dégradation de l’environnement et seront probablement confrontées à des conflits fonciers.

Le chamane et porte-parole yanomami Davi Kopenawa s’est prononcé contre ce projet de loi minière qui menace tous les Indiens du Brésil.

Les représentants des communautés indigènes qui seront affectées par le barrage ont manifesté lundi dernier avec des militants des droits de l’homme et de l’environnement aux côtés de James Cameron, réalisateur d’Avatar et des protagonistes de son film, Sigourney Weaver et Joel David Moore.

Le cortège de manifestants est parti de la cathédrale métropolitaine pour passer devant les ministères impliqués dans le projet controversé et le Congrès national.

Les manifestants, soutenus par de nombreuses organisations nationales et internationales, ont exigé que l’autorisation préalable et l’appel d’offre aux entreprises pour les contrats de construction du barrage soient annulés. L’appel d’offre est prévu pour le 20 avril.

Le mois dernier, James Cameron qui visitait les communautés indiennes de la région du parc national de Big Bend dans le Xingu, a déclaré : ‘Ce barrage mettra fin au mode de vie de tous ces gens qui vivent le long du fleuve depuis des millénaires, je conjure le gouvernement brésilien et le président Lula de renoncer à ce projet’.

Le 1er avril, un document signé par plus de cent organisations a été adressé aux Nations Unies, alertant sur le fait que le projet a été approuvé de manière illégale, que les communautés affectées n’ont pas été correctement consultées et que certains militants opposés au barrage reçoivent des menaces de mort.

La semaine dernière, le Bureau des procureurs brésilien a publié deux documents appelant à l’annulation de la licence de construction de Belo Monte, en précisant que celle-ci a été accordée en violation du droit de l’environnement et de la Constitution brésilienne et que les peuples indigènes de la région n’ont pas été dûment consultés. Ces rapports seront analysés par un juge fédéral qui devrait rendre son verdict avant la date de l’appel d’offres.

Un réseau d’organisations militant pour les droits humains, environnementaux et économiques au Brésil a également publié un rapport condamnant les effets dévastateurs du barrage et appelant à l’annulation de la licence.

Certaines des compagnies qui sont susceptibles de répondre à l’appel d’offre se sont déjà retirées. Le président Lula a toutefois insisté pour que la construction du barrage soit lancée avec ou sans la participation de ces entreprises.

Les Indiens de la région ont organisé plusieurs manifestations contre le barrage, et en prévoient une très importante dans le parc national de Big Bend avant le 20 avril. Ils ont menacé d’entrer en guerre si la construction du barrage était entreprise, annonçant que ‘le Xingu pourrait devenir un fleuve de sang’.

Source : Survival.

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